Unlocking the Mystery: Is Entrepreneurship Innate or Acquired?

October 29, 2023 By cleverkidsedu

Entrepreneurship, the driving force behind innovation and economic growth, has been a topic of much debate. Is it something that can be learned, or is it an innate quality that only a select few possess? This question has been a subject of discussion for years, with experts weighing in on both sides. Some believe that entrepreneurship is a skill that can be honed through experience and education, while others argue that it is a trait that is born with, and cannot be taught. In this article, we will explore both sides of the argument and attempt to unlock the mystery of whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired.

Quick Answer:
The question of whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired has been a topic of debate among experts for years. Some believe that entrepreneurial skills are inherent and cannot be taught, while others argue that it is a learned behavior that can be developed through education and experience. The truth is likely a combination of both. Certainly, some people have a natural inclination towards entrepreneurship, but this does not necessarily mean that they will succeed without hard work and dedication. On the other hand, it is possible for anyone to develop the skills and mindset needed to become a successful entrepreneur with the right education, training, and support. Ultimately, the answer to this question may vary depending on the individual and their unique circumstances.

Understanding Entrepreneurship: Key Concepts and Definitions

Traits of Successful Entrepreneurs

  • Risk tolerance: The ability to take calculated risks and navigate uncertainty is a defining characteristic of successful entrepreneurs.
  • Creativity: Creative thinking enables entrepreneurs to identify new opportunities, devise innovative solutions, and adapt to changing market conditions.
  • Resilience: Successful entrepreneurs possess a strong sense of determination and persistence, allowing them to bounce back from setbacks and maintain their focus on long-term goals.
  • Decisiveness: The capacity to make timely and effective decisions, balancing risks and rewards, is crucial for entrepreneurial success.
  • Adaptability: Being able to adjust to shifting market conditions, customer needs, and technological advancements is essential for entrepreneurs to stay competitive and relevant.
  • Networking: Building and maintaining a strong network of contacts, including mentors, investors, partners, and customers, is vital for entrepreneurial success.
  • Emotional intelligence: The ability to understand and manage one’s own emotions, as well as the emotions of others, is a critical skill for entrepreneurs, enabling them to navigate interpersonal relationships and effectively lead their teams.
  • Focus on results: Successful entrepreneurs are goal-oriented and have a strong work ethic, consistently striving to achieve measurable outcomes and drive business growth.
  • Passion and commitment: Entrepreneurs who are deeply passionate about their ventures and committed to their vision are more likely to overcome challenges and achieve long-term success.

Different Types of Entrepreneurship

When it comes to entrepreneurship, there are several different types that individuals can pursue. One way to categorize these types is by the size of the business they create. For example, small business entrepreneurship involves creating and managing a business with fewer than 500 employees. On the other hand, large business entrepreneurship involves creating and managing a business with more than 500 employees.

Another way to categorize different types of entrepreneurship is by the industry or sector in which the business operates. For instance, technology entrepreneurship involves creating and managing a business that develops or uses technology to solve problems or meet customer needs. Similarly, social entrepreneurship involves creating and managing a business that aims to solve social or environmental problems.

Additionally, some individuals may choose to pursue entrepreneurship as a means of creating their own employment opportunities, rather than seeking employment with an existing company. This type of entrepreneurship is often referred to as “solopreneurship,” and it involves creating and managing a business as an individual, rather than as part of a larger team.

Finally, there are also different types of entrepreneurship based on the stage of the business, such as startup, growth, and mature stage. Each stage has its own set of challenges and opportunities that entrepreneurs need to navigate in order to be successful.

Overall, understanding the different types of entrepreneurship can help individuals better understand the various paths they can take to become successful entrepreneurs, and also to identify the most suitable type of entrepreneurship for their skills, interests, and goals.

Nature vs. Nurture: The Great Debate

Key takeaway: Entrepreneurship is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Successful entrepreneurs possess a unique combination of inborn traits and learned skills, such as risk tolerance, creativity, resilience, decisiveness, adaptability, networking, emotional intelligence, focus on results, and passion. Different types of entrepreneurship include small business, technology, social, solopreneurship, and various stages of business growth. The debate on whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired is ongoing, with both genetic predisposition and environmental and cultural influences playing a role in shaping an individual‘s entrepreneurial journey. Education, training, mentorship, and networking are essential for developing entrepreneurial potential, while a strong support network and cultivating resilience and grit are crucial for nurturing entrepreneurial passion and drive. Examples of both innate and acquired entrepreneurship demonstrate that individuals with natural inclination and those who have developed their skills over time can achieve success in the business world. Ultimately, the answer to whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired may vary depending on the individual and their unique experiences and circumstances.

Genetic Predisposition to Entrepreneurship

Researchers have long debated whether entrepreneurship is an innate trait or if it can be learned and developed over time. Some experts argue that certain genetic factors may predispose individuals to entrepreneurship, making them more likely to start and run their own businesses.

One of the key genetic factors that has been studied in relation to entrepreneurship is risk tolerance. Entrepreneurs often need to take risks in order to succeed, and those with a higher risk tolerance may be more likely to pursue entrepreneurial ventures. Research has shown that certain genetic variations may be associated with higher risk tolerance, suggesting that genetics could play a role in shaping entrepreneurial behavior.

Another genetic factor that has been linked to entrepreneurship is openness to experience. Entrepreneurs often need to be creative and innovative in order to succeed, and those who are more open to new experiences may be more likely to pursue entrepreneurial ventures. Studies have found that certain genetic variations may be associated with higher levels of openness to experience, further supporting the idea that genetics could play a role in entrepreneurship.

However, it is important to note that genetic predisposition alone does not guarantee success as an entrepreneur. Many other factors, such as access to resources, education, and mentorship, can also play a significant role in shaping an individual‘s entrepreneurial journey.

Overall, while the role of genetics in entrepreneurship is still a topic of ongoing research and debate, it is clear that certain genetic factors may predispose individuals to entrepreneurship. However, it is important to remember that entrepreneurship is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, and that success as an entrepreneur is influenced by a wide range of factors, both genetic and environmental.

Environmental and Cultural Influences on Entrepreneurship

The question of whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired has been a topic of much debate. While some argue that certain individuals are born with the entrepreneurial spirit, others contend that it is a skill that can be learned and developed over time. In this section, we will explore the environmental and cultural influences that can shape an individual’s entrepreneurial journey.

Role of Family and Upbringing

One of the most significant environmental factors that can influence an individual’s entrepreneurial potential is their upbringing and family background. Children who grow up in families that value entrepreneurship and have a history of entrepreneurial success are more likely to develop an entrepreneurial mindset. They are exposed to the skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are essential for success in business, and they are more likely to see entrepreneurship as a viable career option.

Cultural Factors

Culture also plays a critical role in shaping an individual‘s entrepreneurial potential. In some cultures, entrepreneurship is highly valued and seen as a desirable career path. In these cultures, individuals are more likely to develop an entrepreneurial mindset and are encouraged to pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. In contrast, in cultures where entrepreneurship is not highly valued, individuals may be discouraged from pursuing entrepreneurial ventures.

Access to Education and Resources

Access to education and resources is another critical environmental factor that can influence an individual’s entrepreneurial potential. Individuals who have access to quality education and resources, such as funding, mentorship, and networking opportunities, are more likely to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in business. Conversely, individuals who lack access to these resources may face significant barriers to entry and may be less likely to pursue entrepreneurial ventures.

Government Policies and Programs

Government policies and programs can also play a significant role in shaping an individual‘s entrepreneurial potential. Governments can create an environment that supports entrepreneurship by providing funding, tax incentives, and other forms of support. They can also create programs that provide training and education to aspiring entrepreneurs. In countries where government support for entrepreneurship is strong, individuals are more likely to pursue entrepreneurial ventures and are more likely to succeed.

In conclusion, environmental and cultural factors can significantly influence an individual’s entrepreneurial potential. Family background, cultural values, access to education and resources, and government policies and programs can all play a critical role in shaping an individual‘s entrepreneurial journey. Understanding these factors can help us better understand the nature vs. nurture debate and can inform policies and programs aimed at supporting entrepreneurship.

Learning vs. Inborn Entrepreneurial Skills

Inborn Entrepreneurial Skills

Some individuals believe that entrepreneurship is an innate skill that is born within a person. These individuals argue that successful entrepreneurs possess certain traits such as creativity, risk-taking, and leadership, which are inborn and cannot be learned. According to this perspective, these traits are innate to a person’s genetic makeup and are present from birth.

However, this view is not universally accepted. Critics argue that while some individuals may have a natural inclination towards entrepreneurship, it is still a skill that can be learned and developed over time. In other words, while certain personality traits may be inborn, the ability to turn an idea into a successful business venture is a learned skill that requires experience, knowledge, and practice.

Learning Entrepreneurial Skills

On the other hand, proponents of the acquired view of entrepreneurship argue that it is a skill that can be learned and developed over time. They believe that entrepreneurship is not just about having a good idea or being a natural risk-taker, but it also requires a wide range of skills such as financial management, marketing, and strategic planning. These skills can be learned through education, training, and experience.

Furthermore, advocates of the acquired view of entrepreneurship argue that successful entrepreneurs are not just born with certain traits, but they also acquire new skills and knowledge throughout their careers. In other words, entrepreneurship is not just an innate trait, but it is also a set of learned behaviors and skills that can be developed over time.

In conclusion, the debate over whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired is still ongoing. While some individuals believe that certain traits are inborn and cannot be learned, others argue that entrepreneurship is a skill that can be learned and developed over time. Regardless of which view one subscribes to, it is clear that successful entrepreneurs possess a unique combination of inborn traits and learned skills that enable them to turn an idea into a successful business venture.

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Potential

There are various factors that can influence an individual’s potential to become an entrepreneur. Understanding these factors can help shed light on whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired. Some of the key factors that affect entrepreneurial potential include:

  1. Genetics: Research has shown that certain personality traits, such as risk-taking and competitiveness, may be hereditary. Therefore, genetics can play a role in determining an individual’s potential to become an entrepreneur.
  2. Environment: An individual’s environment can significantly impact their entrepreneurial potential. For example, growing up in a family that owns a business or being exposed to entrepreneurship at a young age can influence an individual’s decision to pursue entrepreneurship.
  3. Education: Education can also play a role in an individual’s potential to become an entrepreneur. For example, studying business or gaining experience in a specific industry can provide the knowledge and skills necessary to start a business.
  4. Life experiences: An individual’s life experiences can also affect their entrepreneurial potential. For example, facing challenges or setbacks can inspire an individual to pursue entrepreneurship as a way to create their own opportunities.
  5. Network: Having a strong network of contacts and mentors can also impact an individual’s potential to become an entrepreneur. A network can provide support, guidance, and access to resources that can help an individual succeed in their entrepreneurial ventures.

In conclusion, the factors affecting entrepreneurial potential are complex and multifaceted. While some factors may suggest that entrepreneurship is innate, others may indicate that it is acquired. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of nature and nurture in determining an individual’s potential to become an entrepreneur.

Entrepreneurial Potential: Can It Be Developed?

Importance of Education and Training

Education and training play a crucial role in fostering entrepreneurial potential. It is essential to understand that entrepreneurship is not solely determined by innate characteristics but can also be developed through education and training. By providing individuals with the necessary knowledge, skills, and resources, they can develop the mindset and abilities required to become successful entrepreneurs.

One of the primary benefits of education and training is that it provides individuals with a solid foundation of knowledge and understanding of various business concepts and practices. This knowledge can help individuals identify and assess business opportunities, develop effective strategies, and make informed decisions.

Furthermore, education and training also help individuals develop essential skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking, communication, and leadership. These skills are crucial for entrepreneurs as they enable them to navigate the complex business environment, build strong relationships with stakeholders, and effectively manage their teams.

Moreover, education and training can also provide individuals with access to networks and resources that can be valuable in starting and growing a business. For example, networking events, mentorship programs, and business incubators can connect entrepreneurs with potential investors, customers, and partners, providing them with the necessary support to launch and scale their ventures.

In conclusion, education and training are essential for developing entrepreneurial potential. By providing individuals with the necessary knowledge, skills, and resources, they can develop the mindset and abilities required to become successful entrepreneurs.

Role of Mentorship and Networking

The question of whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired has been a topic of much debate in recent years. While some argue that entrepreneurial potential is a trait that is born with, others contend that it can be developed through a combination of education, experience, and support. In this section, we will explore the role of mentorship and networking in developing entrepreneurial potential.

Mentorship is a crucial component of developing entrepreneurial potential. A mentor can provide valuable guidance, advice, and support to an aspiring entrepreneur. A mentor can also serve as a sounding board, helping the entrepreneur to develop and refine their ideas, and providing feedback on their progress. A good mentor can help an entrepreneur to navigate the challenges and obstacles that they will inevitably face, and provide them with the support and encouragement they need to keep going.

Networking is another key aspect of developing entrepreneurial potential. Networking can provide entrepreneurs with access to a range of resources, including funding, expertise, and contacts. It can also provide them with valuable feedback and support, as well as help them to build their reputation and credibility. By connecting with other entrepreneurs, investors, and industry experts, entrepreneurs can gain a better understanding of the market, and learn from the experiences of others.

However, it is important to note that mentorship and networking are not a panacea for developing entrepreneurial potential. While they can provide valuable support and guidance, they are not a substitute for hard work, dedication, and a willingness to take risks. Ultimately, it is up to the individual entrepreneur to develop their own skills, knowledge, and experience, and to cultivate the mindset and attitude that is necessary for success.

Developing Entrepreneurial Mindset and Skills

Developing an entrepreneurial mindset and skills is crucial for unlocking one’s potential as an entrepreneur. It is important to note that entrepreneurial potential can be developed through deliberate efforts, learning, and practice. This section will delve into the various ways in which one can develop an entrepreneurial mindset and skills.

Factors Influencing Entrepreneurial Potential

Before delving into the development of entrepreneurial mindset and skills, it is important to understand the factors that influence entrepreneurial potential. These factors include personal characteristics, such as self-confidence, resilience, and creativity, as well as external factors, such as access to resources, social networks, and market opportunities.

Developing an Entrepreneurial Mindset

Developing an entrepreneurial mindset is the first step towards unlocking one’s potential as an entrepreneur. This involves adopting a proactive, innovative, and adaptive approach to problem-solving and decision-making. An entrepreneurial mindset can be developed through exposure to diverse experiences, learning from failures, and seeking feedback from others.

Developing Entrepreneurial Skills

Developing entrepreneurial skills involves acquiring knowledge and abilities that are necessary for successful entrepreneurship. These skills include financial management, marketing, negotiation, leadership, and communication. Entrepreneurial skills can be developed through formal education, mentorship, and practical experience.

Building a Support Network

Building a support network is crucial for developing an entrepreneurial mindset and skills. This involves seeking out mentors, networking with other entrepreneurs, and joining entrepreneurial communities. A support network provides access to resources, knowledge, and feedback, which are essential for entrepreneurial success.

In conclusion, developing an entrepreneurial mindset and skills is essential for unlocking one’s potential as an entrepreneur. This involves understanding the factors that influence entrepreneurial potential, developing an entrepreneurial mindset, acquiring entrepreneurial skills, and building a support network. By intentionally working on these areas, individuals can increase their chances of success as entrepreneurs.

Nurturing Entrepreneurial Passion and Drive

The Role of Personal Experiences in Cultivating Entrepreneurial Passion

Personal experiences play a significant role in shaping an individual‘s entrepreneurial passion. These experiences can be either positive or negative and can either encourage or discourage someone from pursuing their entrepreneurial dreams. For instance, witnessing the success of a family member or friend who has started their own business can ignite a passion for entrepreneurship in someone else. On the other hand, experiencing the failure of a business venture can discourage someone from pursuing entrepreneurship altogether.

The Impact of Role Models on Entrepreneurial Drive

Role models are essential in inspiring and motivating individuals to pursue entrepreneurship. Role models can be real-life individuals who have achieved success in their entrepreneurial ventures or fictional characters from books, movies, or TV shows. For example, Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are widely recognized as successful entrepreneurs who have inspired countless individuals to pursue their own entrepreneurial dreams. By studying the successes and failures of these role models, individuals can gain valuable insights into what it takes to succeed in the world of entrepreneurship.

The Influence of Education and Training on Entrepreneurial Passion

Education and training can also play a critical role in nurturing entrepreneurial passion. This includes formal education such as business degrees, as well as informal education such as workshops, seminars, and online courses. Through these educational opportunities, individuals can gain the knowledge and skills necessary to start and run their own businesses. They can also learn about successful entrepreneurs and their journeys, which can inspire and motivate them to pursue their own entrepreneurial ventures.

Cultivating Resilience and Grit to Overcome Entrepreneurial Challenges

Entrepreneurship is not an easy journey, and it requires a lot of resilience and grit to overcome the challenges that come with it. Nurturing these qualities in individuals can help them persevere through the ups and downs of entrepreneurship. This can be achieved through various means, such as exposing individuals to failure and encouraging them to learn from their mistakes, teaching them how to manage stress and overcome obstacles, and providing them with mentors who can guide them through difficult times.

In conclusion, nurturing entrepreneurial passion and drive is essential in developing entrepreneurial potential. Personal experiences, role models, education and training, and cultivating resilience and grit are all critical factors in this process. By focusing on these areas, individuals can develop the skills and mindset necessary to succeed in the world of entrepreneurship.

Success Stories: Born vs. Made Entrepreneurs

Examples of Innate Entrepreneurship

There are numerous examples of successful entrepreneurs who have demonstrated that entrepreneurship can indeed be innate. Some of these examples include:

  1. Mark Zuckerberg – The founder of Facebook, Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard to pursue his vision of creating a social networking platform. His entrepreneurial instincts and ability to identify and seize opportunities have been the driving force behind Facebook’s success.
  2. Bill Gates – As the co-founder of Microsoft, Gates has been instrumental in shaping the tech industry. His natural entrepreneurial abilities and keen understanding of the market have allowed him to identify and capitalize on opportunities that have made Microsoft one of the most successful companies in history.
  3. Elon Musk – The founder of SpaceX, Tesla, and Neuralink, Musk’s entrepreneurial ventures have revolutionized industries such as transportation and energy. His bold vision and innovative approach have made him one of the most influential entrepreneurs of our time.
  4. Steve Jobs – As the co-founder of Apple, Jobs’ innate entrepreneurial skills were evident in his ability to identify and capitalize on emerging trends. His dedication to innovation and design have helped Apple become one of the most valuable companies in the world.
  5. Oprah Winfrey – The founder of the Oprah Winfrey Network, Winfrey’s natural entrepreneurial abilities have allowed her to create a media empire. Her innate understanding of her audience and ability to connect with them has made her one of the most successful women in business.

These examples illustrate that entrepreneurship can indeed be innate, and that individuals with a natural inclination towards entrepreneurship can achieve great success in the business world.

Examples of Acquired Entrepreneurship

Acquired entrepreneurship refers to individuals who have developed their entrepreneurial skills and traits over time through experience, education, and exposure to different environments. Here are some examples of individuals who have demonstrated acquired entrepreneurship:

Learning from Failure

  • Sara Blakely: The founder of Spanx, Blakely started her career as a salesperson and later as a stand-up comedian. She experienced multiple failures before finally launching her successful shapewear brand. Through her determination and willingness to learn from her mistakes, she acquired the necessary skills to become a successful entrepreneur.

Education and Training

  • Mark Zuckerberg: The founder of Facebook, Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard University to pursue his entrepreneurial dreams. Although he had some initial success, he faced many challenges and obstacles along the way. However, through his education and exposure to the tech industry, he acquired the skills and knowledge necessary to grow Facebook into one of the world’s most successful companies.

Overcoming Adversity

  • J.K. Rowling: The author of the Harry Potter series, Rowling faced numerous challenges in her life, including poverty, single motherhood, and rejection from publishers. However, through her determination and resilience, she acquired the skills necessary to become a successful author and entrepreneur. She used her experiences to build a global brand and empire around the Harry Potter franchise.

Seeking Opportunities

  • Michael Dell: The founder of Dell Technologies, Dell started his career by selling personal computers out of his college dorm room. He identified a gap in the market for affordable and customizable computers and sought out opportunities to fill that gap. Through his entrepreneurial spirit and willingness to take risks, he acquired the skills necessary to build a successful business.

These examples demonstrate that entrepreneurship can be acquired through various means, including learning from failure, education and training, overcoming adversity, and seeking opportunities.

Recap of Key Points

  • The debate surrounding the origins of entrepreneurship revolves around whether it is an innate trait or something that can be learned and developed.
  • Both sides of the argument have their merits, with proponents of the innate theory pointing to successful entrepreneurs who claim to have always known they wanted to start their own businesses.
  • On the other hand, advocates of the acquired theory highlight the numerous examples of individuals who have become successful entrepreneurs after pursuing other careers or facing failures in their initial business ventures.
  • Some studies suggest that a combination of both innate and acquired factors contribute to the development of entrepreneurial success.
  • Theories such as the “Serial Entrepreneur” and the “Opportunistic Entrepreneur” also provide alternative perspectives on the origins of entrepreneurship.
  • Ultimately, the answer to whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired may vary depending on the individual and their unique experiences and circumstances.

Final Thoughts on Entrepreneurship: Nature or Nurture?

When it comes to entrepreneurship, the question of whether it is an innate quality or something that can be learned is a topic of much debate. While some argue that entrepreneurship is a natural talent that one is born with, others believe that it can be acquired through experience and education.

The truth is, both nature and nurture play a role in shaping an individual‘s entrepreneurial potential. Research has shown that certain personality traits, such as risk-taking and creativity, are often found in successful entrepreneurs. However, these traits can also be developed over time through exposure to new experiences and learning opportunities.

Additionally, it is important to consider the role of environmental factors in shaping an individual’s entrepreneurial potential. Access to resources, networks, and support systems can all play a role in an individual’s ability to start and grow a successful business.

Ultimately, the question of whether entrepreneurship is innate or acquired may not have a clear-cut answer. Instead, it is likely that a combination of both nature and nurture contributes to an individual’s entrepreneurial potential. By recognizing the importance of both genetics and environmental factors, we can better understand the complex interplay of factors that shape successful entrepreneurs.

FAQs

1. Is entrepreneurship something you’re born with or can it be learned?

The question of whether entrepreneurship is an innate quality or something that can be learned is a topic of much debate. While some argue that entrepreneurship is a natural talent that some people are born with, others believe that it can be taught and developed through experience and education. The truth likely lies somewhere in between, as both nature and nurture play a role in determining one’s entrepreneurial potential.

2. Can anyone become an entrepreneur, or is it just for certain people?

While some people may seem to have a natural inclination towards entrepreneurship, the truth is that anyone can become an entrepreneur with the right mindset, skills, and resources. Entrepreneurship is a skill that can be developed and honed over time with dedication, effort, and a willingness to learn from mistakes. Whether you’re a natural born risk-taker or more cautious by nature, anyone can learn to think like an entrepreneur and pursue their own ventures.

3. What are the key traits of successful entrepreneurs?

Successful entrepreneurs often possess a combination of traits that enable them to navigate the challenges and uncertainties of starting and growing a business. These traits may include a strong sense of self-motivation, resilience, creativity, strategic thinking, and the ability to take calculated risks. Of course, no two entrepreneurs are alike, and different individuals may possess different combinations of these traits. However, these are some of the key characteristics that are often associated with successful entrepreneurship.

4. Can entrepreneurship be taught or is it something that can only be learned through experience?

While there is no substitute for hands-on experience when it comes to entrepreneurship, there are many educational resources and programs available that can teach the skills and knowledge needed to start and grow a successful business. From formal business education programs to online courses and workshops, there are many ways to learn the ins and outs of entrepreneurship. However, it’s important to note that experience is a crucial part of the learning process, and there is no substitute for getting your hands dirty and learning from your own mistakes.

5. Is there a “right” way to become an entrepreneur, or can anyone succeed their own way?

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to entrepreneurship, and what works for one person may not work for another. Successful entrepreneurs often have unique backgrounds, experiences, and approaches to problem-solving. The key to success is finding your own path and developing the skills and knowledge that are most relevant to your specific goals and circumstances. Whether you’re pursuing a traditional business model or forging your own path, the most important thing is to stay true to your vision and remain committed to your goals.

Are Entrepreneurs Made or Born?